The concept of health is complex and perceptions of health vary at individual, societal, clinical and institutional levels.

Health is determined by numerous factors such as genetics, environmental conditions, experiences and exposures of both mothers and fathers before, during and after conception and pregnancy, socioeconomic stressors at the individual and community levels, and access to quality health care.

A person’s perception of their own health varies based on age, family background, cultural identification, social and community connections including media influences, psychological state, and socioeconomic characteristics such as education, employment and income. It is fluid and changes over time. These perceptions go on to shape societal views of health that influence health priorities and investment.

With over 70,000 codes classifying diseases, injuries and related health problems in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-AM),1 only a small subset are included in this report. Disease groups associated with higher health burden, high health expenditure, or, are health priorities at the state or national level, are generally included. However, disease groups and conditions that are not represented should not be interpreted to be of lesser importance.

This chapter includes sections on MortalityHospitalisationsChronic diseasesCancerCommunicable diseaseMental healthDental and oral health, and Injuries.


  1. Independent Health and Aged Care Pricing Authority. 2022. ICD-10-AM/ACHI/ACS. Accessed: 4 November 2022.

Last updated: November 2023